The Red Armies crossed Liupan Mountain

In Oct, 1934, the Red Armies began the Long March from their base of Jiangxi Province. To start with the Red Army was very poorly equipped. Bamboo spikes were the most common weapon to start with and guns were extremely rare. In Jan, 1935, a conference at Zunyi took place that would forever change the face of China. Mao emerged from the conference as the leader of the Communists Party and overall commander of the Red Army. Some of the prominent Chinese leaders in the Long March were Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, Zhu De, Peng Dehuai, leading the Third Army Group, Lin Biao, leading the First Army Group, Nie Rongzhen, political commissar of the First Front Army, Liu Bocheng, Ye Jianying, and Li Xiannian, who would become the President of the People's Republic of China. He Long, (also to be named a Marshal) had been sent ahead leading the Second Army Group and to-be-Marshal Chen Yi was left behind with the wounded and sick.

At the beginning of Oct, 1935, the Red Armies marched to Liupan Mountain area. In Oct 5, they arrived at Shanjiaji Village, where Mao Ze-dong slept in the ahong's quarter for one night.

In Oct 6, the First Army Group passed Xinglong Town, Xindianzi, Shizilu, Yangjiamo, Huanghewan and arrived at Zhangyi Town of Guyuan Coutny at night.

In the early morning of Oct 7, the Red Armies walked into Longde County and began to enter Liupan Mountain area. The situation was urgent. Red Army intelligence reported that the KMT had crack troops poised to block such an attempt in 2900m altitude Longde County.

When arriving at the foot of Liupan Mountain, the vanguard reported to Chairman Mao that the enemy-KMT's cavalry were resting at Qingshizui and their horses were tied to trees. Mao immediately commanded three teams of Red Army's soldiers to attack the enemy surprisingly. As a result, the enemy cavalry were alarmed and confused. Some were shot while just riding on the horse; and some were caught before riding on the horse. At last, 200 enemy cavalries actively surrendered, more than one hundred horses and many other military objects were captured by the Red Army. This battle just lasted for half an hour. After the battle, Chairman Mao distributed these horses to Linbiao and asked him to form the Red Army's first cavalry regiment.

In the morning of Oct 7, the Red Armies climbed on one peak of Liupan Mountain-Niutou Mount, where famous poem titled "Mount Liupan(Qingpingyue-Liupan Mountain)" written down by Chairman Mao. At that night, Mao lived in caves dwelling of Zhang’s after Qingshizui Triumph.

In the morning of Oct 8, the Red Armies divided into two groups marching to Baiyangcheng. In the noon, the KMT warplanes bombed when the Red Armies soldiers were ready to have lunch. In a moment, they ran into mountain area in northeastern direction.

In Oct 9, the Red Armies continued to march towards northeastern direction. In Mengjiayuan, they captured Liujie Fortress and seized some cattle and grain.

In Oct 10, the Red Armies arrived at Sancha. In Oct 19, they reached Wuqi Town and united with Red Armies in Shanxi Province. The grand joining of forces by the three front armies signaled the victorious conclusion of the 25,000 li (12,500km) Long March. It meant the Red Army had advanced to the forefront of the resistance against Japanese aggression, of the struggle to national salvation.


Red Liupan team, Zhangyi Middle School, Ningxia, China.2007